REPELLING space threats to Earth
By Nobel prize nominee L.A.S.E.R team (Laser & Afforesting Shields for Earth-life Rescuing)
It is of outmost importance to inform and prepare public for the threat of space threats events. Such as meteorites, asteroids, comets, space superstorms, electrically charged particles arriving from the sun or other stars. These events can significantly disrupt and/or destroy electrical supply, water supply, health care, transportation, and even blow all nuclear, as we, thankfully, escaped by a near-miss solar superstorm in July 2012. Hence further study of potential damages on our infrastructure and ways to minimize or even avoid it, is crucial and towards the benefit of humankind.
During the morning of September 1st, 1859, Richard Carrington, one of England’s foremost astronomers witnessed an enormous group of sun-spots (precursors of a solar storm). What followed is described best by his own words: “I hastily ran to call someone to witness the exhibition with me. On returning within 60 seconds, I was mortified to find that it was already much changed and enfeebled”. He and his witness were observing an extreme solar storm. The next day aurora was visible near tropical latitudes over Cuba, Jamaica , Hawaii and others.
Tunguska event 1908
The Tunguska event was a large explosion that occurred near the Stony Tunguska River, in Yeniseysk Governorate (now Krasnoyarsk Krai), Russia, on the morning of 30 June 1908 (N.S.). The explosion over the sparsely populated Eastern Siberian Taiga flattened 2,000 km2 (770 sq mi) of forest yet caused no known human casualties. The explosion is generally attributed to the air burst of a meteoroid. It is classified as an impact event, even though no impact crater has been found; the object is thought to have disintegrated at an altitude of 5 to 10 kilometres (3 to 6 miles) rather than hit the surface of the Earth. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunguska_event
New York 1921 railroad event
On May 13th, 1921 a 94,000 mile wide sunspot erupts. Aurora was visible across Europe as far as California. On the morning of 15th of May New York railroad was out of action and ground controllers were on flames due to underground currents.
Apollo 16 – 1972 solar flare
Apollo 16 just missed an X2-class flare in August 1972 that would have posed a major problem if astronauts had been on the Moon at the time. It has been estimated that an exposed astronaut would have received 300 rems of radiation, an amount that would have had about a 50 percent chance of being fatal within 60 days…
Quebec Blackout 1989
On March 13th, 1989, a solar storm caused widespread blackout for millions across Montreal and surrounding areas of Quebec. Neighboring electrical grids in the Northeastern U.S. barely survived blackout conditions, but minor power grid problems were noted across the U.S.
According to the NASA.gov website, “It was like the energy of thousands of nuclear bombs exploding at the same time. The storm cloud rushed out from the sun, straight towards Earth, at a million miles an hour.”
The 2012 near-miss extinction event
Chelyabinsk 2013 event
The Chelyabinsk meteor explosion over Russia on 15 February 2013, lead 1,491 people sought medical attention in Chelyabinsk Oblast within the first few days. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelyabinsk_meteor#Injuries_and_damage
USA 2017 blackouts
There are also minor solar storm that caused severe geomagnetic storms on Earth that significantly affected countries. An example of those are the solar storms of 1999 and 2015 which had as result the knocking out of air traffic control system…
The events described above as well as their frequency, are alarming. Their effects in economy have been studied but are far from the true nature of what will actually happen in case we face a second Carrington level even.
According to NASA studies the cost for USA only would be 2-3 trillion US $ and many states would be left without electricity for up to 15 months.
A more detailed study (Oughton, et al., 2016), which is done for USA economy, calculates the economic footprint depending on geographical latitudes. We are mostly concerned with the 4th scenario where the auroral electrojet will reach 55o latitude.
In this scenario it is estimated that 66% of population will be affected and 100 % of daily GDP for USA, thus leading to $ 41.5 billion per day.
Similar study for EU is not made public yet and we are in the process of finishing it. Preliminary results can be presented below.
Considering damages and affect to economy from auroral electro jet similar to USA for the same latitudes, meaning loss of 100% GDP, then cost per day for the affected countries is $ 25 billion. (WorldBank, 2017) . It has to be noted that the evaluation of economic multipliers and side-effects of such global scale events requires deep analysis that is necessary to be done.
We expect a collapse of European economy of unprecedented proportions.
To the above estimation is excluded the danger of meltdown of nuclear plants due to loss of electricity (Kazunari, 2015).
Taking into consideration that a solar flare of X30 type (similar Carrington event) has a probability 10% to take place within the next 30 years (Schrijve, et al., 2012) it is of outmost importance the human race to start preparing.
Magma stimulation by space electricity
Cosmic radiation and volcanic eruptions
It is scientifically proven that strong fluctuations of cosmic radiation can cause volcanic eruptions in volcanic magma structures. The most recent example of such an explosion was the eruption of the Pinatubo volcano on June 15, 1991. Shortly before the explosion, an extremely wide variation in cosmic radiation levels was observed (Ebisuzaki et al., 2011).
Laser Earth Shield proposal
Since 2011 our team has been aware of the above danger, and has been ever since trying to inform society regarding the dangers of such a physical event. We have participated on a voluntary basis, on several presentations (including Geocataclysm-2011 and Global Risk Forum-2014 congresses), tv/radio news broadcasts trying to make this matter to become first priority.
We have been proposing not only the passive measures of early warning systems deployed by NASA and ESA (SDO), but active shielding that will absorb large amounts of electrically charged particles (CME) arriving from the Sun to Earth.
Charged particles traveling at high speeds (100 km/sec to 3000 km/sec) (NOAA), is plasma matter which can be treated according to modern advances in physics. According to Ratherford Appleton Laboratory, an artificial plasma front can stop another “attacking “ plasma wave (aka solar flare) .
Our proposal is the contraction of a device that will be placed on Langrangian point 1 (approximately 1,5 million klm from Earth). Such device will be able to create a sufficient large frontier of plasma in case a CME is imminent to hit Earth. This artificial plasma frontier will absorb/deflect part of the plasma arriving from Sun in case of a solar flare of X10 and more, hence minimizing catastrophic effects on Earth.
Creation of such power full plasma shield require large amounts of energy, which can be provided using concentrated laser beams.
Currently technology, has provided petta-watt lasers (High Energy Density Science, 2017) (HI Jena, 2016) and others which can be used to locally provide large amounts of energy required to produce sufficient power full plasma frontier, able to absorb part of solar-electrically charged particles arriving from Sun.
A small scale proof of concept of the above is the Plasma shield patent provided by Boeing (Tillotson & Brian, 2015).
Other technologies can probably be used to create a protective “shield” against extreme space weather as magnetic shields, (artificial magnetospheres) (Green, et al., 2017).
All of the above technologies and proposed solutions require, the dedication of society globally. As the final goal is the creation of a space station in Langrangian 1that will produce the plasma “shield” or magnetic sphere as a protection against extreme space weather events, the requirement for resources as well as innovative technologies is unprecedented. Hence, no country or single space organization can afford to design and implement such a project, instead all nations should be dedicated to this cause.
This has a prerequisite, the resolution of all conflicts globally in order to let societies start preparing. Furthermore, universities and institutions should start immediate collaborations setting as a goal the design and development of the planetary “shielding” device.
We at L.A.S.E.R. plan to focus our efforts to the following areas:
Detailed economic study of a solar storm event which will cause power failure.
Co-operation with universities in order to conduct monte-carlo simulations and evaluations of the proposed solutions (magnetic and plasma shielding)
Continue and inform the public regarding the danger of neglecting to protect our electrically and electronically developed civilization against extreme space weather events.
Investigate further the uses of the emerged technologies from the above research and possible applications of it as clean energy, increase of productivity and real aid to developing countries.
Our team is currently supported by university professors: M. Leftaki, S. Papamarinopoulos, Nikolaos Vernikos, Evangelos Valaris & on a technical level by the Computer Science department of BCA (Business College of Athens). We hope that we will able to establish more co-operation with scientific and academic community.
To AVERT extinction event:
Green, J. et al., 2017. A FUTURE MARS ENVIRONMENT FOR SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION. s.l., Planetary Science Vision 2050 Workshop.
HI Jena, 2016. Helmholtz Institue JENA. [Online]
Available at: https://www.hi-jena.de/en/research_areas/high_power_laser/petawatt_lasersystems/
[Accessed 1 March 2017].
High Energy Density Science, 2017. texaspetawatt. [Online]
Available at: http://texaspetawatt.ph.utexas.edu/
[Accessed 1 March 2017].
Kazunari, S., 2015. http://www.swpc.noaa.gov. [Online]
Available at: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/images/u33/final_shibata_SWW_2015.pdf
[Accessed 1 Jan 2017].
NOAA, n.d. http://www.swpc.noaa.gov. [Online]
Available at: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/phenomena/coronal-mass-ejections
[Accessed 1 March 2017].
Oughton, E. J. et al., 2016. Quantifying the daily economic impact of extreme space. Space Weather, 15(10.1002/2016SW001491.).
Schrijve, C. J. et al., 2012. Estimating the frequency of extremely energetic solar events,based on solar, stellar, lunar, and terrestrial records. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, Volume 10.1029, p. 11.
Tillotson & Brian, J., 2015. Method and system for shockwave attenuation via electromagnetic arc. USA, Patent No. 8,981,261.
WorldBank, 2017. data.wordlbank. [Online]
Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/?locations=AT-SE-NO-CH-GB-NL-DE-PL-FI
[Accessed 1 March 2017].